EGGS: THE SUPER FOOD

Eggs, yolk, white, eggshell and all are the superfood of raw feeding. Chalk full of nutrients, great source of calcium and perfect for those obnoxious hairballs you really can't go wrong with this awesome protein source!

 

Eggs are natures true miracle. Not only do they contain and sustain a little life, nutritionally they are one of the most complete foods (1) . They are chock full of proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals (1,2) and due to recent research, they have been found to contain cancer and free radical fighting antioxidants (3). They barely contain carbohydrates or sugar (4) and include all 9 essential amino acids (5, 6,7) which is important for the growth, maintenance and repair of tissue, muscle, hair, bones (8, 9, 10, 11, 12) and much more! Compared to most protein sources they are the most cost effective. For raw feeders, this super food is perfect for any companion. Not only is it a great nutritional addition, eggs often aid with hairballs (13, 14), putting weight on low weight companions (15), and contains anti-inflammatory properties (16) among many many other health benefits.

 

One topic that always pops up when it comes to feeding raw egg is avidin. Avidin is a component found in the egg white that binds biotin (17). This often results in many owners only feeding the egg yolk or cooking the egg white. The common misunderstanding is that because it binds biotin that a deficiency will result. Nature once again comes in to save the day. While the egg white does contain avidin, the yolk is loaded with biotin. In fact, egg yolks contain one of the highest biotin contents in the natural world (18, 19, 20)! Furthermore, you would need to feed your companions a lot of egg white to produce a deficiency (21). Instead of cooking the egg white which denatures (22, 23) not only the avidin but almost all of the other proteins and nutrients available to your companion, feeding the whole egg, white and yolk is a wonderful solution.

 

Another concern is salmonella. This concern began in the 1980’s when a salmonella outbreak related to eggs occurred in North East America. It resulted in the deaths of many people and illness in hundreds of other egg consumers. After this outbreak, stricter protocols were implemented (24, 25) to not only prevent the spread of the disease but to reduce salmonella in hen houses. Due to these new protocols, the prevalence of salmonella dropped. One of these protocols included the FDA requiring extensive cleaning if the eggshell and improving the living environments for hens (25, 26).

 

It is very unlikely that your companion will become sick from salmonella contamination. If eggs are stored at 45 degrees or less, salmonella is not able to grow (26). In addition, if your companion is not immunocompromised in any way, on a raw diet their high immune system will help to keep bacteria and illness at bay. Furthermore, dogs and cats have bacteria destroying enzymes call lysozymes in their mouth (27, 28, 29), a highly acidic stomach that will kill surviving bacteria and a very short digestive tract that very quickly eliminates excess waste including surviving bacteria (30,31).

 

With eggs being readily available, cost-effective and nutritionally complete your companions would surely be missing something great if you didn’t feed them.

 

REFERENCES:

 

  1. Iannotti, L L, et al. “Eggs: the Uncracked Potential for Improving Maternal and Young Child Nutrition among the World's Poor.” Nutrition Reviews., U.S. National Library of Medicine, June 2014, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24807641.

  2. Nutrition Data. “Egg, Whole, Raw, Fresh Nutrition Facts & Calories.” Nutrition Data Know What You Eat., nutritiondata.self.com/facts/dairy-and-egg-products/111/2.

  3. Pham-Huy, Lien Ai et al. “Free radicals, antioxidants in disease and health” International journal of biomedical science : IJBS vol. 4,2 (2008): 89-96.

  4. USDA. “Basic Report: 01123, Egg, Whole, Raw, Fresh.” Food Composition Databases Show Foods -- Egg, Whole, Raw, Fresh, Apr. 2018, ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/01123?fgcd=&manu=&format=&count=&max=25&offset=&sort=default&order=asc&qlookup=EGG&ds=&qt=&qp=&qa=&qn=&q=&ing=.

  5. Hoffman, J R, and M J Falvo. “Protein - Which Is Best?” Journal of Sports Science & Medicine., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1 Sept. 2004, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24482589.

  6. Food and Nutrition Board of Institute of Medicine (2005) Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids [1], page 691, from National Academies Press

  7. Swendseid, Marian E, et al. Egg Protein as a Source of the Essential Amino Acids. 13 Nov. 1958, watermark.silverchair.com/jn0680020203.pdf?token=AQECAHi208BE49Ooan9kkhW_Ercy7Dm3ZL_9Cf3qfKAc485ysgAAAi0wggIpBgkqhkiG9w0BBwagggIaMIICFgIBADCCAg8GCSqGSIb3DQEHATAeBglghkgBZQMEAS4wEQQMdozVuEMpVvgTnuGmAgEQgIIB4Pl8FNZHMjfFuTwtKvS8xdmw391qZGscrLFqCSam4DAqBVrHLZ9n_K9HMwF2gibRhNJmirG_dGHEhPzNDbU9E87R2R61uWxMLD4hef5onZSngSBgiGUkGcvdor_KHGDmnn1nLkI6Bo9CRpPd4Cr7TGXOBnCWDhdt8njzVPmAQeH6hftHn_7KHk5flAyHvZO-27sdSVJ7hKoOL_1aJf_SrhXX1-9XFPnqCGDaw3dTxa2D2ZFIqePvZiyMa3LNwF-q_SfhxqT-dPWIZnrUi03njQL2qqWoRF9-rp4VPW1Gs6nMaJLTdDIqxXMHWhwqH5AJc4sFSIZcio2MlmnH5QuLd1eEy3A7rqDY0yRhJiLvXg3eWk6nZkoHNVaOM5-hQxPaLYs-PDfVOih-brAP-_XEX5jYzLKLZ0qeSx5t5lsXIbSAxX3bwBf-mpkGMYiTlSu-HOnM4MTbvLAPrYsK6n4TiFnHzKrYuE-u47ZP64m_r2tAlfJKRwVJvUzq9FxihlzF352ApgCo4GVUseJN9Z7a-sn5MicR6sjUrKNYULKyKYLxt41epioyLdxmwRHda4fSyC-3w3T1OM9ozXVVWDSSji1LG0Wwyg-EMXKU7mN4hSoWVHfp6L5WzPDfAiImtWLhHA.

  8. National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database; CID=6287, https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/6287 (accessed Nov. 5, 2018).

  9. National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database; CID=6288, https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/6288 (accessed Nov. 5, 2018).

  10. National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database; CID=6137, https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/6137 (accessed Nov. 5, 2018).

  11. National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database; CID=6306, https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/6306 (accessed Nov. 5, 2018).

  12. National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database; CID=5962, https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/5962 (accessed Nov. 5, 2018).

  13. Norsworthy et al. 2013. Diagnosis of chronic small bowel disease in cats: 100 cases (2008-2012); JAVMA 2013;243:1455-1461.

  14. Dion, Tracey. “Hairballs: Species-Appropriate Treatment.” CatCentric, 14 Dec. 2013, catcentric.org/care-and-health/hairballs-species-appropriate-treatment/#1.

  15. Baum, Jamie I et al. “The effect of egg supplementation on growth parameters in children participating in a school feeding program in rural Uganda: a pilot study” Food & nutrition research vol. 61,1 1330097. 6 Jun. 2017, doi:10.1080/16546628.2017.1330097

  16. “Bioactive Egg Components and Inflammation” Nutrients vol. 7,9 7889-913. 16 Sep. 2015, doi:10.3390/nu7095372

  17. Helppolainen SH, Nurminen KP, Määttä JA, et al. (August 2007). "Rhizavidin from Rhizobium etli: the first natural dimer in the avidin protein family". The Biochemical Journal. 405 (3): 397–405. doi:10.1042/BJ20070076PMC 2267316PMID 17447892.

  18. Masterjohn, Christopher, and Christopher MasterjohnChris Masterjohn. “Vitamins for Fetal Development: Conception to Birth.” The Weston A. Price Foundation, 23 July 2013, www.westonaprice.org/health-topics/childrens-health/vitamins-for-fetal-development-conception-to-birth/#4.

  19. Masterjohn, Chris. “The Incredible, Edible Egg Yolk.” Chris Masterjohn, PhD, 1 July 2005, chrismasterjohnphd.com/2005/07/01/the-incredible-edible-egg-yolk/.

  20. Mann, K, and M Mann. “The Chicken Egg Yolk Plasma and Granule Proteomes.” Proteomics., U.S. National Library of Medicine, Jan. 2008, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18046696.

  21. Stratton, S L, et al. “Marginal Biotin Deficiency Can Be Induced Experimentally in Humans Using a Cost-Effective Outpatient Design.” The Journal of Nutrition., U.S. National Library of Medicine, Jan. 2012, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22157538.

  22. Pritchard AB, McCormick DB, Wright LD (1966). "Optical rotatory dispersion studies of the heat denaturation of avidin and the avidin-biotin complex". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 25 (5): 524–8. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(66)90623-1.

  23. Durance TD (1991). "Residual Avid in Activity in Cooked Egg White Assayed with Improved Sensitivity". Journal of Food Science. 56 (3): 707–9. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1991.tb05361.x.

  24. Patrick, Mary E et al. “Salmonella enteritidis infections, United States, 1985-1999” Emerging infectious diseases vol. 10,1 (2004): 1-7.

  25. Brown, David. “Egg-Loving Salmonella Bacteria Have Been Sickening People for Decades.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 14 Sept. 2010, www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/09/13/AR2010091303594.html.

  26. FDA. “Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation.” Federal Register, FDA, 9 July 2009, www.federalregister.gov/documents/2009/07/09/E9-16119/prevention-of-salmonella-enteritidis-in-shell-eggs-during-production-storage-and-transportation.

  27. Nester EW, Anderson DG, Roberts CE, Nester MT (2007). Microbiology: A Human Perspective (5th ed.). Boston, Mass.: McGraw-Hill Higher Education. ISBN 978-0-07-110706-8.

  28. Manchenko GP (1994). "Lysozyme". Handbook of Detection of Enzymes on Electrophoretic Gels. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press. p. 223. ISBN 978-0-8493-8935-1.

  29. Hart BL, Powell KL (September 1990). "Antibacterial properties of saliva: role in maternal periparturient grooming and in licking wounds". Physiol. Behav. 48 (3): 383–6. doi:10.1016/0031-9384(90)90332-XPMID 2125128.

  30. Beasley, DeAnna E. et al. “The Evolution of Stomach Acidity and Its Relevance to the Human Microbiome.” Ed. Xiangzhen Li. PLoS ONE 10.7 (2015): e0134116. PMC. Web. 14 July 2018.

  31. The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. “Digestion.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 8 Apr. 2016, www.britannica.com/science/digestion-biology.

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